Depression References

Depression Information

What is Depression? Depression Definition and Checklist

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2WebMD, Mental Health and Adjustment Disorder:

Types of Depression – Different Types of Depression

1General reference for article: Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Medscape Reference, Dysthymic Disorder:

Signs of Depression: Depression Warning Signs, Understanding Depression:

Depression Diagnosis and How is Depression Diagnosed?

1American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Text Revision. 4th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.

2Medscape Reference, Depression:

3Medscape Reference, History and Mental Status Evaluation:

Depression Facts – Depression Statistics

1Medscape Reference, Depression:, Long-Term Effects of Untreated Depression:

Depression Test for Teenagers

1National Institute of Mental Illness, Depression in Children and Adolescents (Fact Sheet):

Symptoms of Depresion

Depression Symptoms: What are the Symptoms of Depression?

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2National Institute of Mental Health, Depression:

Pain of Depression: Physical Symptoms of Depression

1Psychology Today, When Depression Hurts:

2Harvard Health Publications, Depression and Pain:

3National Institute of Mental Health, Depression:

Causes of Depression

Causes of Depression: What Causes Depression?

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Stress, genetics can trigger depression:

What Caused the Depression?

1PubMed, Contraception choices in women with underlying medical conditions:, Depression and Alcohol Abuse – Alcohol Depression:

3Mayo Clinic, Alcohol and depression: What are the risks?

4Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Misery Has More Company Than People Think: Underestimating the Prevalence of Others' Negative Emotions: DOI: 10.1177/0146167210390822

5Mayo Clinic, Marijuana and depression: What's the link?

6ScienceDaily, Cannabis: Potent Anti-Depressant In Low Doses, Worsens Depression At High Doses:

7Mayo Clinic, Junk food blues: Are diet and depression linked?

8Mayo Clinic, Caffeine and depression: Is there a link?

9Medscape Reference, Depression:

10National Institute of Mental Health, FDA Warnings on Antidpressants:, Postpartum Depression and the Baby Blues:

Which Medications Cause Depression?

Levine, H. (2018). Can your medications cause depression? Consumer Reports. Retrieved December 2018

Rogers, D. & Pies, R. (2008). General medical drugs associated with depression. Psychiatry (Edgmont),
5(12), 28-41. Retrieved December 2018 from

University of Illinois at Chicago (2018). One-third of US adults may unknowingly use medications that can
cause depression: Polypharmacy on the rise.
Science Daily. Retrieved December 2018 from

WebMD Medical Reference. (n.d.). Depression: Medicines that cause depression. MedicineNet.
Retrieved December 2018 from   

Effects of Depression

Effects of Depression: Physical, Social Effects of Depression

1Mayo Clinic, Depression and Pregnancy:

2Mayo Clinic, Depression and pregnancy: What you need to know:

3PubMed Central, Amygdala volume in Major Depressive Disorder: A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies: doi: 10.1038/mp.2008.57, Long-Term Effects of Untreated Depression:

Atypical Depression

What is Atypical Depression? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

1WebMD, Atypical Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Atypical Depression:

3Medscape Reference, Atypical Depression:


Dysthymia (Chronic Depression) – Signs, Symptoms, Treatment

1Medscape Reference, Dysthymic Disorder:

Major Depresion

What is Clinical Depression? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

1Mayo Clinic, Depression (Major Depression):

Major Depression (Major Depressive Disorder) Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Depression (Major Depression):

MDD: DSM Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

Psychotic Depression Symptoms and Treatment

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

Postpartum Depression

What is Postpartum Depression (PPD), Postnatal Depression?

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Postpartum Depression:

Postpartum Depression Signs and Symptoms

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Mayo Clincic, Postpartum Depression:

Postpartum Depression Treatment

1Medscape Reference, Postpartum Depression:

Postpartum Depression Help and Support




Baby Blues and Postpartum Depression: What's the Difference?

1Mayo Clinic, Postpartum Depression:

2Medscape Reference, Postpartum Depression:

Postpartum Depression Scale, Postpartum Depression Screening

1Massachusetts General Hospital, Quiz Results: Are you suffering from Postpartum Depression?:

What is Postpartum Psychosis?

1Medscape Reference, Postpartum Depression:, Postpartum Depression and the Baby Blues:

Postpartum Depression in Men

1Daily Press, Postpartum depression hits dads, too:, Postpartum Depression Hits Dada, Too:

3Medscape Reference, Postpartum Depression:, Depressed Dads More Likely to Spank, Shortchange Kids: Study:


PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder) Symptoms, Treatment

1Medscape Reference, Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder:

Seasonal Depression Disorder

What is Seasonal Depression Disorder? Symptoms, Treatment

1Mayo Clinic, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD):, Modafinil treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder/winter depression: an open-label pilot study.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Symptoms – Who's At Risk

1Wikipedia, Seasonal affective disorder:

2Mayo Clinic, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD):

3Mayo Clinic, Depression (major depression):

SAD Light: Seasonal Depression Light Therapy for SAD

1Mayo Clinic, Depression (major depression):, Light Therapies for Depression:

3Mayo Clinic, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD):, Bipolar Disorder, Light and Darkness: Treatment Implications: 5

5Mayo Clinic, Seasonal Affective Disorder, In-Depth:

How to Beat the Winter Blues, Lighten Up! How to Beat Back Winter Blues:


Depression in Children: Overview of Child Depression

1Medscape Reference, Pediatric Depression:

2National Institute on Mental Health, Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and Prevention:

Recognizing Symptoms of Depression in Teens and Children

1Medscape Reference, Pediatric Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Teen Depression:

Teenage Depression-Signs, Symptoms, Antidepressants

1Mayo Clinic, Teenage Depression:

Antidepressants for Children: Important Information for Parents

1Mayo Clinic, Depression treatment for children: What works?

2Medscape Reference, Pediatric Depression:

3Medscape Reference, Fluoxetine (Rx):

4Medscape Reference, Sertraline (Rx):

5Medscape Reference, Fluvoxamine (Rx):

6Medscape Reference, Imipramine (Rx):

7Medscape Reference, Desipramine (Rx):

8Medscape Reference, Amitriptyline (Rx):


Depression in Men: Understanding Male Depression

1The Royal College of Psychiatrists, Depression in Men:

2Medscape Reference, Depression:

3Men Web, Men and Depression:

Important Depression Symptoms in Men

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

2Mayo Clinic, Male depression: Understanding the issues:


Depression in Women: Understanding Female Depression

1These are also in another section where the DSM diagnostic criteria are listed. It seems that the wording is important when taking diagnostic criteria directly from the DSM so I didn't want to change the verbiage.

2Psychosomatics, Suicide Risk Assessment: A Review of Risk Factors for Suicide in 100 Patients Who Made Severe Suicide Attempts:

3National Institute on Mental Health, Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and Prevention:

How Symptoms of Depression Affect Women

1Medscape Reference, Depression:, Depression in Women:

Treatment of Depression

Depression Treatment Options

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

Best Depression Treatment

1National Institute of Mental Health, Depression:

2HealthyPlace, What is the Best Treatment for Depression:

Major Depression Treatment

1NARSAD now called The Brain and Behavior Research Fund:

2Medscape Reference, Depression:

Stop Depression: Can You Cure Depression?

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

List of Antidepressants – List of Medications for Depression

1Medscape Reference, Psychiatry:

2This medication is approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia, specifically not depression, although is listed as an antidepressant in Medscape Reference.

SNRI (Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor)

1PubMed Central, Desvenlafaxine in major depressive disorder: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy.

AntidepressantMedications for Depression

1Medscape Reference, Depression:

Depression and Weight Gain, Depression and Weight Loss

1May Clinic, Antidepressants and weight gain: What causes It?

Antidepressants and Weight Gain – SSRIs and Weight Gain

1WebMD, Far Pharms: Antidepressants and Weight Gain:

2Medscape Reference, Psychiatrics:

3Mayo Clinic, Antidepressants and weight gain: What causes it?

What is Serotonin Syndrome? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

1Mayo Clinic, Serotonin Syndrome:

Antidepressant Side Effects and How to Manage Them

1Mayo Clinic, Antidepressants: Get tips to cope with side effects:

Natural Antidepressants: An Alternative to Antidepressants

1Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericumperforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002; 287(14): 1807 14.

2Mayo Clinic, Depression:

Depression Therapy: How Psychotherapy for Depression Works

American Psychological Association Fact Sheet

Antidepressants and Alcohol Don't Mix

1McKim, William, Drugs and Behavior, Pearson Education, 2007

2Mayo Clinic, Antidepressants and alcohol: What is the concern?

Antidepressants and Marijuana (Weed): Is There Any Harm?

1National Health Services (England), Does cannabis interaction with antidepressants or lithium?

2Medscape Reference, Marijuana:

Managing Antidepressant Sexual Side Effects

1Brink, S. Are antidepressants taking the edge off love? Los Angeles Times, pp. F8. July 30, 2007.

2Sexual Side Effects Of Antidepressants Common, But Still Seriously Underestimated By Physicians. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2012, from (no longer available)

SSRI Antidepressants: About SSRIs, Side-Effects, Withdrawal

1From Making the Prozac Decision: A Guide to Antidepressants, by arrangement with RGA Publishing, Inc.

2Antidepressant discontinuation reactions.

3British Medical Journal 1998; 316:1105-1106 (11 April)

4Depression in primary care, Vol 2. "Treatment of Major Depression," US Department of Health and Human Services, 1993 (Clinical practice guidelines No. 5).

5"Antidepressants," Royal College of Psychiatrists, Dec. 2004

6Antidepressants, SSRIs, Medscape Reference:

7Depression, Medscape Reference:

8Antidepressant withdrawal: Is there such a thing?, Mayo Clinic,

SNRI (Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor)

1Anderson IM. Meta-analytical studies on new antidepressants. Br Med Bull. 2001;57:161-178.

2Cymbalta [package insert]. Indianapolis, IN: Eli Lilly and Company; May 10, 2007.

3Effexor XR [package insert]. Philadelphia, PA: Wyeth-Ayerst; March 2007.

4Perahia DG, Pritchett YL, Kajdasz DK, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of duloxetine and venlafaxine in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. Epublished ahead of print. April 17, 2007.

5Perahia DG, Kajdasz DK, Royer MG, Walker DJ, Raskin J. Duloxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: an assessment of the relationship between outcomes and episode characteristics. IntClinPsychopharmacol. 2006 Sep;21(5):285-295.

6Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Thieda P, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antidepressants in the Pharmacologic Treatment of Adult Depression. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 7. (Prepared by RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016.) Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January 2007. Available at: Accessed January 25, 2007.

7A Surgeon General's Perspective: Achieving Remission in Depression, (CME course) Dec. 15, 2004.

8(Throughout) Medscape Reference, Antidepressants, SNRIs:

Tricyclic Antidepressants: How Tricyclics Work, Side Effects

1"Copyright © 1997. RGA Publishing Group. From Making the Prozac Decision: A Guide to Antidepressants, by arrangement with RGA Publishing, Inc."

2New Source: Medscape Reference, Antidepressants, TCAs:

MAOI Antidepressants: What are MAO Inhibitors?

1"Copyright © 1997 Do Antidepressants Lose Their Effect? From Making the Prozac Decision: A Guide to Antidepressants, by arrangement with RGA Publishing, Inc."

2Medscape Reference, Antidepressants, MAOIs:

Alternative Treatments

Natural Depression Treatment: Herbal, Natural Remedies for Depression

1Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericumperforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002; 287(14): 1807 14.

2National Institute of Mental Health, Depression Diagnostic Evaluation and Treatment:

3Mayo Clinic, Depression:

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for Depression

1Wikipedia, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation:

2Corpus Callosum, Another rTMS Update:

3MindCare, Frequently Asked Questions:

Does Deep Brain Stimulation for Depression Work?

1Mayo Clinic, Deep brain stimulation for depression:

2Chicago Tribune, Expertise counts with deep brain stimulation:

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Treating Depression

1Medscape Reference, Neuromodulation Surgery for Psychiatric Disorders:

2Oregon Health and Science University, Rapid Review Draft Report: Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Depression:

3Cyberonics, Insurance Information:


Shock Treatment for Depression: How ECT Shock Therapy Works

1Mayo Clinic Staff, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). Mayo Clinic. Accessed January 19, 2019.

2Kalapatapu , Raj K. et al, Electroconvulsive Therapy. Medscape. Jan. 12, 2015.

Maintenance ECT: Why Some People Need Continuation ECT

1PubMed, A review of continuation electroconvulsive therapy: application, safety, and efficacy:

2PubMed, Retrospective study of continuation electroconvulsive therapy in 50 patients:

3PubMed, Efficacy of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in recurrent depression: a naturalistic study:

4Medscape Reference, Electroconvulsive Therapy:

ECT Therapy for Depression: Is ECT Treatment Safe?

1Medscape Reference, Electroconvulsive Therapy:

2PubMed, The Mortality Rate with ECT:

Effects of ECT, ECT Side Effects

1PubMed, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) increases serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in drug resistant depressed patients:

2PubMed, Electroconvulsive therapy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and possible neurorestorative benefit of the clinical application of electroconvulsive therapy:

3Medscape Reference, Electroconvulsive Therapy:

4HealthyPlace, The Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Memory of Autobiographical and Public Events:

5PubMed, Efficacy of ECT in depression: a meta-analytic review:

History of ECT: How the ECT Procedure Developed

1Medscape Reference, Electroconvulsive Therapy:

2Wikipedia, Electroconvulsive Therapy:

ECT Videos

1PubMed, Efficacy of ECT in depression: a meta-analytic review:

ECT Problems

1Medscape Reference, Electroconvulsive Therapy:


Feeling Depressed? What To Do When You Feel Depressed

1National Institute of Mental Health, How Can I Help Myself if I'm Depressed?

Anxiety and Depression

Relationship Between Anxiety and Depression

1PubMed, Suicide risk assessment: a review of risk factors for suicide in 100 patients who made severe suicide attempts. Evaluation of suicide risk in a time of managed care:

Depression Support

Depression Support: Why You Need It, Where to Find It

[i]WebMD, Depression Support:

[ii]Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, About Support Groups and Chapters:

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APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2012, January 1). Depression References, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 16 from

Last Updated: January 21, 2019

Medically reviewed by Harry Croft, MD

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